September 28, 2019

751 words 4 mins read



Stochastic Delta Rule implemented in Pytorch on DenseNet

repo name noahfl/sdr-densenet-pytorch
repo link
language Python
size (curr.) 970 kB
stars (curr.) 102
created 2018-12-11
license BSD 3-Clause “New” or “Revised” License

Stochastic Delta Rule

This repository holds the code for the paper

‘Dropout is a special case of the stochastic delta rule: faster and more accurate deep learning’ (submitted to ICML; on arXiv)

Noah Frazier-Logue, Stephen José Hanson

Stochastic Delta Rule (SDR) is a weight update mechanism that assigns to each weight a standard deviation that changes as a function of the gradients every training iteration. At the beginning of each training iteration, the weights are re-initialized using a normal distribution bound by their standard deviations. Over the course of the training iterations and epochs, the standard deviations converge towards zero as the network becomes more sure of what the values of each of the weights should be. For a more detailed description of the method and its properties, have a look at the paper.


Here is a TensorBoard instance that shows the results from the paper regarding titration of training epochs and the comparison to dropout (on DN100/CIFAR-100). We show that SDR can reach (and surpass) dropout’s level of accuracy in 35 epochs as opposed to dropout’s 100 epochs.


Results in this repository are more current than what are in the paper due to how often they are updated and how often the arXiv post can be replaced.


Model type Depth C10 C100
DenseNet(k = 12) 40 6.88 27.88
DenseNet(k = 12) 100 —- 24.41
DenseNet-BC(k = 12) 250 —- 23.91


Model type Depth C10 C100
DenseNet(k = 12) 40 5.95 24.58
DenseNet(k = 12) 100 —- 21.36
DenseNet-BC(k = 12) 250 —- 19.79

Two types of Densely Connected Convolutional Networks (DenseNets) are available:

  • DenseNet - without bottleneck layers
  • DenseNet-BC - with bottleneck layers

Each model can be tested on such datasets:

  • CIFAR-10
  • CIFAR-100
  • ImageNet (results coming soon)

A number of layers, blocks, growth rate, image normalization and other training params may be changed trough shell or inside the source code.


Example run:

    python --layers 40 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN40_C100_alpha_0.25_beta_0.05_zeta_0.7 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C100 --lr 0.25 --beta 0.52 --zeta 0.7

This run would train a 40-layer DenseNet model on CIFAR-100 and log the progress to TensorBoard. To use dropout, run something like

    python --layers 40 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN40_C100_do_0.2 --tensorboard --dataset C100 --droprate 0.2

where --droprate is the probability (in this case 20%) that a neuron is dropped during dropout.

NOTE: the --sdr argument will override the --droprate argument. For example:

    python --layers 40 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN40_C100_alpha_0.25_beta_0.02_zeta_0.7 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C100 --lr 0.25 --beta 0.02 --zeta 0.7 --droprate 0.2

will use SDR and not dropout.

List all available options:

    python --help

TensorBoard logs and steps to reproduce results


Emphasis below has been placed on test results, but training/encoding-optimized TensorBoard logs will be supplied where available. These will be updated as more results are generated.

DenseNet-40 on CIFAR-10

TensorBoard logs: Testing | Training

Command to replicate test results:

    python --layers 40 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN40_C10_alpha_0.25_beta_0.1_zeta_0.999 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C10 --lr 0.25 --beta 0.1 --zeta 0.999

DenseNet-40 on CIFAR-100

TensorBoard logs: Testing | Training

Command to replicate test results:

    python --layers 40 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN40_C100_alpha_0.3_beta_0.2_zeta_0.9999 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C100 --lr 0.3 --beta 0.2 --zeta 0.9999

DenseNet-100 on CIFAR-100

TensorBoard logs: Testing | Training

Command to replicate test results:

    python --layers 100 --no-bottleneck --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN100_C100_alpha_0.25_beta_0.1_zeta_0.7 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C100 --lr 0.25 --beta 0.1 --zeta 0.7

DenseNet-250 BC on CIFAR-100

TensorBoard logs: Testing | Training

Command to replicate test results:

    python --layers 250 --growth 12 --reduce 1.0 -b 100 --epochs 100 --name DN250_C100_alpha_0.25_beta_0.03_zeta_0.5 --tensorboard --sdr --dataset C100 --lr 0.25 --beta 0.03 --zeta 0.5

ImageNet results will be generated and posted as soon as our institution finishes setting up our account with AWS.

The code used is based heavily on Andreas Veit’s DenseNet implementation and PyTorch’s Vision repository.




If you use DenseNets in your work, please cite the original paper as:

  author  = {Huang, Gao and Liu, Zhuang and Weinberger, Kilian Q.},
  title   = {Densely Connected Convolutional Networks},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1608.06993},
  year    = {2016}
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